Custom-Made Duality-Based Transformer Models for PSCAD

Updated January 2, 2020

Various topology-based transformer models have been developed for PSCAD based on the principle of duality [1]-[5]. The available topologies are:

  • Single-phase core

  • Three-limb core

  • Five-limb core

They are depicted below:

Some of the available models are shown below (all models included in “CustomDualityTrfs.pslx” found at the end of this page):

For more models or functionalities, please contact:

In simulations, please note the following:

  1. For open terminals, any connection type (star,delta,zigzag) will be done externally with an appropriate single phase voltage.

  2. Saturation can be disabled by setting a large knee voltage (e.g. 9 pu) and small loop width (e.g. 0%).

  3. For 3-limb models, zero-sequence flux-path is important when unbalanced faults are applied.

  4. Internal outputs are defined in pu as:

    1. FluxLinkage in pu = (FluxLinkage*2*pi*f)/V, which means at steady-state the peak value is sqrt(2) and RMS value is 1.0 [pu]

    2. MagnetizingCurrent in pu = (MagnetizingCurrent*3*V)/(MVA)

  1. To match a given saturation curve, use the MatchSat simulation set (found in the Intermediate Library of PSCAD V4.6.3).

  2. Open Circuit Test (OCT) and Short Circuit Test (SCT) for each component are provided for your reference.

  3. Link is made to ".\lib\$(Compiler)\CustomDualityTrfs.lib". Please make sure the "lib" folder exists in the working directory (where "CustomDualityTrfs.pslx" is located).

Developed by: Mohammad Shafieipour, Ph.D., P.Eng., Power Systems Technology Centre, Manitoba Hydro International Ltd.


[1] M. Shafieipour, J. C. Garcia A., R. P. Jayasinghe, A. M. Gole, "Principle of Duality with Normalized Core Concept for Modeling Multi-Limb Transformers," International Conference on Power Systems Transients (IPST), Perpignan, France, Jun. 17-20, 2019, pp. 1-6.

[2] S. Jazebi et al., “Duality Derived Transformer Models for Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Transients - Part I: Topological Models,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 2410–2419, Oct. 2016.

[3] C. Alvarez-Marino, F. de Leon and X. M. Lopez-Fernandez, “Equivalent Circuit for the Leakage Inductance of Multiwinding Transformers: Unification of Terminal and Duality Models,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 353–361, Jan. 2012.

[4] F. de Leon, and J. A. Martinez, “Dual Three-Winding Transformer Equivalent Circuit Matching Leakage Measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 160–168, Jan. 2009.

[5] J. A. Martinez, R. Walling, B. A. Mork, J. Martin-Arnedo and D. Durbak, “Parameter determination for modeling system transients-Part III: Transformers,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 2051–2062, Jul. 2005.